Shown below, the IBM 1130 Computing System was introduced in 1965. It was IBM's least-expensive computer to date, and was aimed at price-sensitive, computing-intensive technical markets like education and engineering.
The IBM 1800 was a process control variant of the 1130 with two extra instructions (CMP and DCM) and extra I/O capabilities.
The 1130 became quite popular, and the 1130 and its non-IBM clones gave many people
their first feel of "personal computing." Though its price-performance ratio was good and it notably included inexpensive
disk storage, it otherwise broke no new ground technically. The 1130 holds a place in computing history primarily because of the
fondness its former users hold for it.
|IBM 1130 Mini Computer - LINK
Shown below, the IBM 1401 was a variable wordlength decimal computer that was marketed as an inexpensive "Business Computer". At peak, there were over
10,000 installed systems running in the mid-1960s. The IBM 1401 was withdrawn in February 1971. During its lifetime about 20,000 total systems were manufactured, making the IBM 1401 one of IBM's most successful
IBM's John Haanstra, supported larger series 1400 models, but the 1964 decision at the top to focus resources on the System/360 ended these efforts rather suddenly.
Shown below is an IBM 360/65 a high end member of the 360 family.
The S/360 was the most expensive CPU project in history. (The most expensive project of the 1960s was the Apollo program for moon exploration. IBM's System/360 was the second most expensive. S/360 machines were also heavily used
in the Apollo project.)
Fortune Magazine at the time referred to the project as IBM's "$5 billion gamble," and they were right. IBM absolutely bet the
company on the System/360. (US $5 billion in 1964 dollars translates to about $30 plus billion in 2005 dollars.)
But the bet paid off.
The S/360 was replaced by the compatible System/370 range in 1971. Despite being sold in (for its time) very large numbers, only one System/360 computer is known to remain,
a System/360 Model 30, in the custody of the Computer History Museum in Moffet Field, CA. It is in near-operable condition.